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1. Know the structural formulas and names of the following copounds. Hayworth formulas for alpha-and beta-D-glucose, beta-D-fructose, beta-D-galactose, beta-D-manose, maltose, cellobiose, sucrose, lactose, dihydroyacetone, D-glyceraldehyde, pyridoxal phosphate, nicotinamide, biotin, cholesterol, palmitic acid, steric acid, a triglyceride, lecithin, ATP ) .

2. Know the structural formulas of the five organic bases normally found in nucleic acids (adenine, guanine, cytosine,uracil, and thymine)(A) including both the keto and enol forms. Be able to write the structural formulas and names for all the possible rib- and deoxyribonucleosides and nucleotides found in neucleaic acids.

3. From Sections 5,4 and 5.5 review the meaning of the term allosteric interaction and in particular how it applies to hemoglobin?????.

4. From Section 6.2 Kinetic Properties of Enzymes know the Michaelis-Menten Theory A)and be able to explin it. Be able to define Km and know its significance. Be able to list the variouse ways of expressing enzyme activity including turnover number. Know the significance of the Lineweaver-Burk plot and the differences in the plots between competitive and uncompetitive inhibition.

5. From Section 6.4 Enzyme Inhibition be able to define, discuss and explain inhibitor, competitive, noncompetitive inhibitor, allosteric inhibitor and feedback inhibition. Use Diagrams, structures and examples. Be able to distinguish between the different types of inhibition by employing examples of the Lineweaver-Burk plot.

6. Know the coenzyme components, functions, chemical names and deficiency diseases/symptoms of the vitamines listed in the handout.

7. Be able to write an essay about the allosteric enzymes including statements about regulatory enzymes including positive and negative effectors (moderators), and feedback inhibition. Include in your discussion the S-curve (sigmoidal curve) and how it is used to show the enzyme is allosteric. Be able to briefly describe the MWC concerted model and the sequential model [Koshland] cncerning allosteric regulation. [Boyer, Section 7.2]

8. Be able to write an essay about the cellular regulation of enzymes including statements about the covalent modification of regulatory enzymes, activation of zymogens, and the nature of isoenzymes. [Boyer, Section 7.3.]

9. Be able to describe briefly the following items: site-directed mutagenesis. catalytic antibodies, and catalytic RNA (including statements about ribonuclease P, self-splicing RNA introns, and the significance of ribozymes). [Boyer, Sections 7.4 and 7.5.]

10.Know the nutritional significance of the alpha verses beta linkage.

11. Be able to describe the nature (including components) and properties of polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen, cellulose, chodroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. [Boyer, Section 6.4.]


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March 21, 2001

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