Click Here!


ink to Ointment

Biochemistry 410

Review for Third Exam

 

BioChemTutorial

Chapter 11-14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 of Boyer plus handouts and other items covered in lecture.

1. Know the structural formulas and names of the following compounds: Haworth formulas for alpha- and beta-D-glucose, beta-D-fructose, beta-D-galactose, beta-D-mannose, urea, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, carbam(o)yl phosphate, arginine, ornithine, cholesterol, palmitic acid, stearic acid, lecithin, ATP, alpha-ketoglutaric acid.

2. Know the seven steps of protein biosynthesis. [See handout and Ch 12.] Be able to write a major essay about protein biosynthesis describing in detail the seven steps. Refer to handout on protein biosynthesis and expand on posttranslational modification and regulation.

3. Be able to write a mini essay about the genetic code to the extent presented in class and text. Describe the triplet code, the start and stop codons, (pages 354 and 355 of Boyer), and terms nonoverlapping, no punctuation, degenerate (redundant), and universal.

4. Be able to write an essay about the RNA polymerase promoter and the regulation of protein biosynthesis. [Boyer, Section 12.4.] Be able to describe the terms constitutive genes, expressions of inducible or repressible genes, operon, activators, repressors, examples of gene regulation, namely the lac operon, the trp operon, steroid response elements, metal response elements. Be able to describe and give examples of the three classes of regulatory proteins including helix-turn-helix motif, the zinc finger motif, and the leucine zipper motive.

5. Be able to write a detailed essay about post-translational processing of proteins (Boyer 12.3) including protein folding and the role of chaperone proteins, biochemical modifications including proteolytic cleavage, amino acid modification, protein targeting, protein degradation involving ubiquitin.

6. Be able to discuss correlations (interrelationships) in metabolism. [See handout and Boyer Sections 14.1 and 14.2.] Be able to indicate key connecting points [names of key metabolites] in metabolism. Be sure to include the pentose phosphate pathway, ureal cycle, formation of ketone bodies, gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, etc.

7. Understand the concepts of bioenergetic (Boyer , 14.3). Know the equation for free energy change.

Go' = 2,303 RT log K'

Know that the Go' values for coupled reactions are additive.[See Boyer p. 433.]

8. Know glycolysis [acerobic and anaerobic]. [See Boyer Ch 15] Know the names and structural formulas of all the metabolites (intermediates) in glycolysis in the proper order. Also know the names of all the enzymes and coenzymes as well as the energy requirements in terms of ATP.

9. Know the Krebs citirc acid cycle. [See Boyer Ch 16.] Know the names and structural formulas of all the metabolites (intermediates in glycolysis in the proper order. Also know the names of all the enzymes and coenzymes as well as the energy requirements in terms of ATP.

10. Be able to discuss electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation [Boyer Ch 17.] Indicate the names of the intermediates in the electron transport system starting with NAD and its substrate [See class discussion.] Be able to indicate where FADH2 enters the pathway. Know the sites at which oxidative phosphorylation takes place. Be able to indicate how the energy is produced and ultimately saved as ATP. The discussion should also include a short statement about Peter Mitchell's chemiosmotic hypothesis.

11. For the pathways urea cycle, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis/glycogenolysis know the names and/or structural formulas of all the metabolites (intermediates) in the proper order. Also know the names of the enzymes and coenzymes as well as the energy requirements in terms of ATP. [See lecture notes.]

12. Be able to describe fatty acid oxidation. Be able to indicate the names and/or structural formulas of the intermediates in this pathway in the proper order. Also know the energy requirements of this pathway.

13. Know the effects of various inhibitors [as described in class or in the text] on metabolism and related processes. Specifically know which inhibit the Krebs cycle, electron transport system/oxidative phosphorylation, protein biosynthesis, etc. Emphasis will be given to the following: oxidative phosphorylation: cyanide, dinitrophenol, oligomycin, Krebs cycle: fluoroacetate (fluoride), malonic acid; protein biosyntheses: actinomycin, puromycin, streptomycin, erythromycin.

14. Be able to describe fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis and ketogenesis to the extent discussed in class.

15. Be able to describe nitrogen metabolism including amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and nucleotide metabolism to the extent discussed in class.

16. Be able to describe four ways (mechanisms) by which metabolic processes are regulated. Be able to indicate the name(s) of the key regulatory enzyme(s) in each of these metabolic pathways: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, urea cycle.

17. Be able to calculate [determine] the energy yield in terms of ATP of any metabolite; for example, complete oxidation of glucose, stearic acid, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

18. Know which substances are ketogenic and which are glucogenic. [See handout.]

19. Be able to solve a mathematical problem dealing with reduction potentials and free energy using

20. Know other items from the text and/or lecture that are included in the chapters dealing with this exam.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(back to links)
March 21, 2001

all rights reserved copyright 1999 contact us for
more information
from our mind to yours